The structures, textures and composition of minerals preserved in rocks and mineral deposits indicate that they were formed from tiny particles like sediments and chemical precipitates. Before examining details of the immense body of evidence for this, the following points should be appreciated: -
1) Current surveys and recent scientific work being introduced to Earth scientists are not controversial or in conflict with the present general level of understanding. Geologists agree with the simple proposition that sediments in the ancient oceans must have had the same physical, chemical and fluid properties as sediment accumulations in the oceans today. Terms like claystone, mudstone, and sandstone recognise that these rocks were formed from ancient sediments. If we had we been able to do modern surveys (seismic work and deep ocean drilling) on ancient sediments before they became rocks, most earth scientists would also expect them to show the same large scale downslope sliding and the massive updomed intrusions that have been revealed in thick sedimentary deposits today.
2) Traditional ways of interpreting geology are correct but they are limited to ordinary physics and chemistry that excludes colloid science and current studies of extremely small particles. In other words, traditional conclusions are the best that anyone could reach without colloid science. We are drawing attention to evidence that indicates we should interpret geological phenomena using, not just one new principle, but an entire more recently developed branch of science.
3) It must be emphasised that this use of current colloid science is definitely not a new theory or a personally favoured idea put forward by a single scientist. Existing standard theory (now developed in colloid science) has been applied to interpret existing geological observations. This branch of science has not been used before to understand the properties and behaviour of charged particles in ancient sediments. Its use in defining the chemical mechanisms by which rocks and mineral deposits were formed is therefore highly innovative but this use is the only thing that is new and different. The remaining body of work is simply extensive, systematic, and patient collection of observational data and pursuit of the relevant scientific literature.
4) Particles of clay or mud are minute bits of crystalline minerals that have electrically charged surfaces. Normally water is chemically combined with these particles or clings to their surfaces, but the electric charge also makes the particles cling to each other. Mud is ‘sticky’. The total surface area of the millions of particles in every cubic meter of mud is about 60,000,000 square meters. All chemical reactions that occur in the tiny spaces between particles while the sediments are compacting to rocks must therefore take place in the immediate vicinity of a surface. The presence of a charged surface at each point where ions and molecules are reacting chemically to form rocks and mineral deposits, is very different from chemical reactions envisaged by “hydrothermal solution theories”. These traditional theories about the behaviour of solutions are correct but they are based on normal chemical reactions in bulk solution such as those in open test tubes or in laboratory reaction vessels.
5) Every picture in the e-book or that can be taken by others is a valid experimental test of the central hypothesis. If the rocks and mineral deposits were formed by colloidal processes from the ancient sediments as they compacted, there should be evidence of this preserved in the rocks. We should be able to find evidence of former plasticity, diffusion, cohesion and fracture, mobilisation by shaking or movement (earthquake shocks or sliding and flow downslope), and sudden resetting where mudflows or intrusions were about to stop. The rocks should contain residual hydrous minerals and show aggregation or ‘clotting’ of the fine-grained components. We should see spontaneous shrinkage cracks in aggregates and nodules, overgrowth and rimming structures, bulbous ‘loopy’ vein intrusions, ordering patterns and enhanced crystal growth.
Ordinary rocks and mineral deposits contain this evidence in abundance. As Professor Carey pointed out to his students, it can be seen by everyone who is not “blinded by what we think we know”!